Recycling of polymeric and organic waste using solar energy and liquid nitrogen.
A new universal method for the recycling of polymeric and organic waste by the method of pyrolysis thermal decomposition in the presence or absence of oxygen (deoxidation of the chamber with liquid nitrogen).
Liquid nitrogen in the pyrolysis chamber expands approximately 600 times and completely forces out and displaces oxygen. In the subsequent reaction (at temperatures and pressures of pyrolysis) it acts as an inert gas.
Recycling of polymeric waste gives: diesel fuel – about 20%; black carbon – 31%; natural gas – 23%; water – 16%. Organic waste have the same tendency.
Experiments were conducted with heating by various types of solar collectors. To create an energy-independent installation, a spherical collector is selected which can raise the required temperatures of 500-600oC with average solar activity in Ukraine from the end of spring to the beginning of autumn (1 kW / m2) – pyrolysis is energy self-sufficient and is ensured by solar energy only.
Figure 1. Developed technology: 1 - pyrolysis chamber; 2 - waste; 3 - copper shirt; 4 and 5 - valves; 6 and 14 - flexible pipes; 7 - cover; 8 - temperature sensor; 9 - pressure sensor; 10 - spherical solar concentrator; 11 - foundations; 12 - hermetic fastening; 13 - Fresnel lens; 15 - gas collection container; 16 - rectification column; 17 - water container; 18 - fuel container; 19 - container for oily substance.
The Fresnel lens provides a higher concentration of sunlight and will allow the temperature to be kept in case of temporary lack of solar energy. Also, a lens and a copper shirt are needed for uniform heating and a smooth passage of the reaction.
The developed installation is movable, so it can be widely used and easily transported to the required location that will enable recycling waste in any waste deposits. This is especially valuable for small trash buildups in forests, small towns and villages.
When working on the project, the patent for utility model was received No. 133811 dated April 25, 2019 “METHOD FOR PYROLYSIS OF SOLID ORGANIC WASTE”.